踏上夢幻列車 遨遊秘魯 神秘馬丘比丘 A Fascinating Train to Machu Picchu

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關於秘魯的天空之城馬丘比丘(Machu Picchu),一直以來有很多傳說和傳奇故事。這個屬於前哥倫布時期的印加帝國遺
址,早在15世紀中西班牙大軍並未抵達秘魯時已經存在。馬丘比丘座落在安第斯山脈約海拔2400米的山脊,俯瞰著烏魯
班巴河谷(Urubamba River),即使湮滅了,依然帶著神秘色彩。不少人甚至認為這是一生必去的地方。馬丘比丘其中一
個最夢幻的遊覽方式,就是坐上一列由東方快車營運的豪華仿古列車,在醉人的氣氛中,把人帶進古印加昔日的璀璨時光。
Machu Picchu is a destination of stories and legends. An Incan citadel, it stands on an Andes mountain ridge
of 2,400 metres above sea level, overlooking Urbama River. One of the most fascinating ways to explore the
mysterious once-in-a-lifetime destination is to take an antique-style train and imagine yourself going back in
time to the glorious Incan Empire.

HIR-EXT-SCE-19拷貝

時光倒流二十年代

先說一點歷史。馬丘比丘正式被發現是在1911年。當時一位美國探險家兼考古學家Hiram Bingham聽說在印加古都庫斯科(Cusco)附近的深山,有個奇異的印加遺址,他為求能找到這個神秘地方,花了一點小錢給那位知道遺址位置的當地人,並由引路人帶進山谷深處,重新發現這個早在1532年已人去樓空的古城。此後數年,他多次回到馬丘比馬進行發掘和考究,並著成《失落的印加城市》一書,自始馬丘比馬便成為了世人關注的一個名字。
慕著馬丘比丘的聲名,從庫斯科坐一上列以Hiram Bingham命名的豪華仿古列車,深入馬丘比丘。這列火車是由管理東方快車(Orient-Express)的Belmond集團與PeruRail合營,被視為當今往來庫斯科與馬丘比丘之間最豪華的客運快線。列車專用的火車站月臺位於Poroy,距離庫斯科市中心約20分鐘車程。甫進站,已聽到站內傳來印加笛子與結他等的傳統樂聲。月台上,有為乘客專誠臨時設置的小吧檯上,放了香檳和飲料,西裝筆挺、笑容親切的侍應適時遞上一杯香檳,說:「歡迎登上Belmond Hiram Bingham馬丘比丘列車。」
從庫斯科到馬丘比丘的車程只需三個半小時,整列Belmond Hiram Bingham列車的四卡車廂,兩卡為餐卡,一卡是酒吧式開放觀景卡,最前的則屬車頭控制卡兼廚房,全車不設臥卡。乘客可帶上他們的行李,由庫斯科坐到馬丘比丘或中途站及下榻當地酒店,也可早車去、晚車返,花一天即日來回體驗馬丘比丘。乘客位置全屬餐卡座位,車票早已包含用餐費用,坐去程到馬丘比丘可享用一頓三道菜的午餐,回程則享用晚餐,來回往返的列車,則兩餐均能品嘗。

The existence of Machu Picchu was made public by American explorer Hiram Bingham in 1911. The site had been vacated by 1532,but with Bingham’s book The Lost City of the Incas, it once again went under the spotlight.
The luxury Belmond Hiram Bingham Train,, operated by Belmond and PeruRail, is considered the poshest passengers’ link between Cusco and Machu Picchu. The opulent experience began on the
platform, where traditional music featuring Andean flutes and guitar is performed and champagne is served.
It takes only 3.5 hours to go from Cusco to Machu Picchu. The four cars on the train, two are for dining, one for bar and observation deck, and another for control and houses the kitchen. The ticket price already includes a three-course brunch or four-course dinner.

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全包式豪華列車體驗

乘客除了坐在自己的座位上欣賞窗外的風景,也可自由走到車尾的酒吧式開放觀景卡去。酒吧內職員已預備好各式飲料、雞尾酒和小吃,除了特定的酒類,其餘的均無限制地免費給乘客享用。也可來一杯秘魯特飲Pisco Sour,啖著那傳統秘魯口味。觀景卡上有駐場樂隊「Trio Sabor & Sentimiento 」演出,為在場人士帶來不同樂曲,有傳統歌曲、有流行音樂,有爵士、有節奏樂曲,他們會跟現場的乘客進行互動,演奏出耳熟能詳的歌曲。當知道筆者是中國人,便即席唱出帶著拉丁美洲節奏的《甜蜜蜜》。說起來,秘魯和中國淵源甚深,十九世紀中已有不少華人由當時仍被葡萄牙殖民統治的澳門出發,經過四個月的海上航行飄洋到秘魯打工,甚至落地生根,部分文化亦受華人移民所影響。
酒過幾巡,樂曲聽過幾遍,是時候回到餐卡座位品嘗由車頭廚房炮製的美食。逐一端來的三道菜均由廚房團隊在火車行駛期間即席炮製。由於車卡廚房空間有限,菜式均為設定套餐,主菜有兩款口味可選,唯素食者或對某些食材敏感的乘客,可在事前提早通知職員,廚房會為你安排另一款菜式奉上。菜單中經常出現的食材,就是於當地河谷出產的彩虹鱒魚(rainbow trout),色澤和賣相跟平日大家吃的三文魚類近,味道更鮮更甜,嘗過的朋友均讚不絕口。餐後,來杯秘魯山區人愛喝的傳統穆納茶(muna tea)寧神放鬆或呷口秘魯咖啡,為這頓豪華列上的餐嚮來個圓滿的句號。放鬆欣賞沿路的景色,列車便已到達馬丘比丘,三個半小時之旅轉眼就過。

Cocktails and snacks are served in the bar car. Most drinks are free-flowing, and sip a Pisco Sour, enjoying the performance of the Trio Sabor & Sentimiento band on the observation deck. They entertained passengers with a wide range of music, from traditional to pop and jazz.Food is freshly made in the first car of the train. Passengers can choose between two main courses. They also serve vegetarian and special meals on request. Locally produced rainbow trout is commonly offered.
The meal is completed with a cup of Peruvian coffee or muna tea—traditionally enjoyed by the Peruvian people in the mountains.Time passes quickly as mesmerising scenery flows past the windows.The train pulls into the Machu Picchu platform.

充滿智慧的古印加建築

到達馬丘比丘,從專用的月台下車後,會由專人帶領,轉乘半小時車程巴士到馬丘比丘遺址去。馬丘比丘印加遺址屬保護區,無論坐Belmond Hiram Bingham豪華列車,抑或坐普通列車還是登山徒步的人,均只能在特定時間購票入場。列車票價早已包括轉乘的巴士安排以及馬丘比丘內導遊講解。這亦是遊覽馬丘比丘的精華所在。畢竟,這個有著重要考古意義的遺址故事性甚高,透過講解,你更能發現馬丘比丘最引人入勝的地方。
據考古學家研究,馬丘比丘不盡是一個普通的城市,而是一個集宗教、生活和開墾耕作的地方,屬印加貴族作為鄉間的修養場所,以能更接近神明,據說只住上約750人。只要站在旁邊的小山丘上俯瞰,除了可以把馬丘比丘盡收眼底,若把頭打側來細看,更能看出一個印加人臉的輪廊來。「後面那座最高的山叫瓦納比丘,就是鼻子的位置,另外那座較矮的,就是下巴。」導遊Walter說,古印加人相信這裡是神召的地方,並建造了不少宗教場所。
走到寺廟之地,眼前建築都令人驚嘆古印加人的智慧。他們利用巨型石塊,將其精密磨成能與旁邊一塊緊貼相連的多邊形,計算出難以動搖的榫位;建造時不需用上灰泥,已能牢牢的把石頭穩固起來,即使遇上天災都不會倒下。走到一條小巷子,導遊指示出在同一條街上幾種不同的建築。「看看這些石頭最大、磨得最平滑、石與石之間猶如無縫的都是宗教寺廟;旁邊那座石頭細一點,石與石之間磨合得雖平滑,但貼得沒有像寺廟般緊密的就是祭司住的地方,再來旁邊的那些,一看便見比較粗糙一些,是平民貴族住的房子。」他說,儘管如此,平民房屋牆壁都是向內微微傾斜,即使遇上地震倒塌,也不會禍及街外人,足見古印加人對建築的匠心獨運。

The train tickets include a 30-minute bus ride to the ruins of Machu Picchu and a guided tour in the protected area. Tour guide Walter took us through the history of Machu Picchu with his simple and clear explanations.
According to archaeological studies, Machu Picchu was a countryside religious retreat for the noble in the Incan era. As many as 750 people lived there at a time. Standing on a small hill, visitors can see a panorama of Machu Picchu,as well as a face when rotated by go degrees. The tallest mountain Huayna Picchu is the nose while a smaller one forms the chin. Believing that this was a
hole place, people in the ancient times built a range of religious structures.
Buildings in Machu Picchu are made with polished stones. They stay in place without concrete and their sturdiness has been tested by numerous natural disasters over the centuries. The most meticulously built structures were used as temples, those with slightly less precision were the priests’ residence,and the roughest ones were for regular residents.

The peks and valleys surrounding Machu Picchu like a wreath are almost more beautiful and awing than the site itself. It is lush and rugged terrain with the Urubamba River weaving drunkenly through. From Machu Picchu Mountain you can really get a sense of the high protected plateau Machu Picchu was built on and how remote and inaccessible the site it. It is simply gorgeous country.

古蹟中享下午茶

走進宗教場所內,設置更令人覺得奇妙。有個據估計為古墓的地方,有著一塊石頭磨得平滑的古墓石級,古代印加人如何在短時間內將巨石加工磨平,依然是近代人難解之謎。此外,古人的天文知識亦不能少覷。在馬丘比丘內有一塊標示南半球冬至(即6月21日)的栓日石,被視為這裡最神聖的一物。有天文考古學家揣測這塊凸起在平台上的精緻四邊形大石雕是一個日晷,栓日石上垂直豎立的石頭,切面有四個驟眼看如點不規則的角,其實對的正好是東南西北四個方位,旁邊唯一凸出的角,就是對著正北,朝向「印加人頭的鼻子」瓦納比丘;正南方和正西方也對著不同的山峰,只有東面沒有向山,就是為了讓太陽光由東方射進來,在冬至時位置更準確地落在栓日石上。

此外還有一塊鑲在地上的石塊,當注了水便變成觀測天文的鏡子,使人不用長期仰頭在觀天看星。另外,馬丘比丘內還有一塊能準確標示南十字星的巨型石頭,都展示出古人智慧。至於馬丘比丘城內唯一一間有廁所的房屋、那些用來扣押犯人的監嶽和吊罰囚犯的石裝置,以及如何採石等更多有趣故事,就等各位自行來細味當中的故事。

在馬丘比丘古城入口前的Belmond Sanctuary Lodge Hotel是與列車同集團建管理的酒店,是不少人慕名下榻的地方,亦是最接近馬丘比丘的住宿,早上在遊人未到之前,可以享受山中寧靜。唯由於房間數目少,通常在大半年前已被訂滿。不過,作為豪華列車乘客,遊畢馬丘比丘會被安排在這裡免費來一頓精致下午茶,享用美味的蛋糕和茶點,感覺圓滿。

坐上回程列車,可以選擇在庫斯科繼續行程,或者到列車唯一的中途站奧揚泰坦博(Ollantaytambo)的聖谷(Sacred Valley)下榻。Belmond Hotel Rio Sagrad 度假式酒店座落在河谷旁邊,裡面設有水療和溫泉泳池,夏日的夜晚更會在草地上播放電影。早上,兩隻在這裡飼養的小羊駝會到草地散步,住客可以向職員拿來小奶瓶,親手餵飼這些可愛羊駝孩子。只要天氣好,均會有當地的婦女到草地上擺攤,售賣自家編織的手藝品。酒店附近有另一座奧揚泰坦博印加遺址同樣不能錯過。當親身感受這秘魯古印加文明的精髓,更深覺千里迢迢到來也是值得。

Fine ancient masonry works are all over in Machu Picchu, the existence of which remains a wonder to people of the modern days. The holiest item there is the Inti Watana stone, which casts the longest shadow on its southern side every June 21—the winter solstice of the southern hemisphere. It is believed to have been designed as an astronomical clock.

Another item of wonder is the carved stone pools on the ground, which was used as stargazing devices when filled with water. There are much more to explore in Machu Picchu, and discover the marvellous stories in the trip.

Belmond Sanctuary Lodge Hotel at the entrance of the protected area of Machu Picchu is managed by the same company of the train, and has housed many celebrities. Before tourists pour into Machu Picchu in the morning, hotel residents are able to enjoy the tranquillity of the mountain exclusively. The hotel is almost always full as early as six months before, but passengers of the Belmond Hiram Bingham Train are invited to a tea buffet after the visit of the site.

The return trip to Cosco offers an option to stop by Sacred Valley in Ollantaytambo, where passengers can stay the night at Belmond Hotel Rio Sagrad. The resort hotel features spa and a heated pool, and movie nights on the grass in summer. There is another Incan ruins in Ollantaytambo and plenty of traditional Peruvian culture to explore. The rich history of the Incan civilisation is worth all the distance.

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