前衛玩味藝術
Playful Art at the Forefront

踏入年末,是時候來個2018藝壇回顧。這年無論是時裝界還是藝術界,盡見波普藝術的影子。說到波普藝術,又豈能不提波普藝術教父安迪.沃霍尔?事實上,今年是他誕生90週年,其一生對當代藝術的影響可謂極其深遠。
As 2018 comes to a close, it is time to revisit the important moments in the art scene. Traces of pop art have been ubiquitous in both the fashion and art worlds this year. This coincides with the 90th birthday of the style’s leading figure Andy Warhol, who has an immense influence on contemporary art.

text: Michelle Siu

筆者早聽說過安迪.沃霍尔這個響噹噹的名字,但真正深入認識這位藝術家,是緣於曾經在2012至2013年於香港藝術館舉辦的安迪.沃霍爾巡迴展中,擔任其中一個活動的義工,最後甚至夜宿藝術館,故此得以全面了解他於藝術文化等各領域的成就。整個體驗十分有趣,除了可以近距離欣賞他的著名繪畫、手稿、相片、影像等,還能參與不同的工作坊,無限暢飲金寶湯,到了午夜昏昏欲睡時更突然被“地下絲絨”
樂團的重搖滾音樂表演驚醒,精神立即為之一振,就這樣歷經了瘋狂的一夜。總覺得玩味才能彰顯波普藝術的真諦,比起後來工作時在高級畫廊和拍賣行遠觀安迪.沃霍尔的天價畫作,這種詼諧搞怪的風格更能走進大眾的生活。

波普藝術在1960年代的紐約開始盛行,是藝術史上一個重要里程碑,而安迪.沃霍爾則是領軍人物。在此之前,藝術一直高不可攀,而波普藝術則把藝術的優越性帶回物質的現實層面,成為輕鬆討喜的通俗文化。安迪.沃霍爾的著名作品皆為大眾流行單品,如《可口可樂》、《金寶湯罐頭》,或是透過鮮明色彩描繪大眾喜愛的明星或政治人物,如的瑪麗蓮.夢露、埃尔維斯.普雷斯利或毛澤東等。另外他也為“地下絲絨”樂團製作了著名的黃色香蕉專輯封面。

也許不少人都認為安迪.沃霍爾的創作過於商業化,欠缺內涵及深度,就此他曾坦言:“商業藝術乃是『藝術』的下一個階段⋯⋯賺錢是一種藝術,工作是一種藝術,而賺錢的商業是最棒的藝術。”他作風前衛,不畏批判,甚至把自己的工作室命名為“工廠”,用“絲網印刷技術”大量複製藝術品,以低廉的价格呈現給大众,諷刺且具警世意義。他的創作理念以及揭露社會真實的精神發人深省。他同時把高雅藝術與通俗藝術無界化,並大力推動藝術普及化,其創作也逐漸改變了人們接受藝術的態度。

波普藝術面向大眾,也必須依靠群眾的力量去推動。安迪.沃霍爾就曾提出:“在未來,每個人都能成名十五分鐘。”任何物件、行為都可視為藝術,而所有人都能參與,但這種只有表面意義的東西來得快也去得快。在那個仍沒有互聯網的時代,他甚至準確預測了在資訊氾濫的今天,一切都在快速更替和變化,每
個人都可以突然爆紅,之後又因為有新的資訊湧入,於是瞬間被人遺忘。事實證明他的想法極具前瞻性,而這種能夠創造無限可能與對未來的想像力,正是藝術的珍貴價值。

I have heard of Andy Warhol for a long time. However, it was only until 2012 to 2013, when I worked as a volunteer at the Andy Warhol exhibition at Hong Kong Museum of Art, that I got to learn about Warhol’s work and accomplishments in depth. The whole experience was very interesting. Apart from the opportunity to appreciate up-close his famous works, originals, photos and videos, there were also plenty of workshops to attend and unlimited Campbell soup to eat, at last I even had to stay at the museum overnight. As I was about to fall asleep near midnight, I was perked up by the live music performance from the famous rock band The Velvet Underground. That was the beginning of my crazy night journey. In contrast to the long-distance appreciation of Andy Warhol’s works at high-end galleries and auction houses, pop art is marked by its playfulness, the one concept which reflects social values and connects to people’s daily life.

Pop art started to gain popularity in the 1960s in New York City. It served as a milestone in the history of art, with Warhol acting as a leading figure. Before the emergence of this art form, art has always been the privilege of the upper class. Pop art leaves the superiority behind and relates art to the material reality, transforming art into a relaxed and enjoyable part of the popular culture. Warhol’s famous works often portray popular items, such as “Coca-Cola” and “Campbell’s Soup Cans”, or entertainment and political celebrities, such as Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley and Mao Tse-Tung. He also created the wellknown banana album cover for The Velvet Underground.

Some people may find the works of Warhol too commercial and lack of depth. To that Warhol responded, “Business art is the step that comes after art…making money is art, and working is art – and good business is the best art.” Warhol goes against traditions and is unfazed by criticisms. He even named his studio “The Factory” and used screen printing techniques to replicate works at a low cost. It was his attempt to reveal the irony in art. His creative ideas and presentation of actual lives in society are most inspiring. He removed the boundary between fine art and pop art, making art more approachable. His creative works have changed the attitude of the public towards art.

Pop art is for the public and spread by the public. Warhol once said, “In the future, everyone will be world-famous for 15 minutes.” Anything or any behaviour can be seen as art and anyone can participate in it. However, these superficial works come and go very quickly. Even before the internet, he accurately predicted the fast pace of change and replacement in the age of information explosion. Everyone can become famous all of a sudden, but forgotten in the next moment as new things emerge. Today’s world is a proof that Warhol is forward-looking. His imagination is limitless. That is exactly the value of art.